Ganzi prefecture is at the origin of Khampa culture and it’s the place where Tibetan-Han culture, agriculture culture and pasturage culture converge. In the historical process, these cultures were conflictual but absorbed each other, creating the Khampa culture, which not only contained similarities with cultures in other Tibetan regions, but also owned its multiple historical characteristics, which is the most important feature of Khampa culture. Khampa culture is a multi-nationalities cultural system based on a Khampa-Tibetan culture. In the Khampa area, apart from Tibetans, there are some other nationalities, such as Han, Yi, Qiang, Naxi, Hui, etc. Even among Tibetan there are some different branches, such as self-proclaimed Babu, Guiqiong and Queyu Tibetan who speak Daofu, Guiqiong and Queyu language respectively and Baima Tibetan, Jiarong Tibetan, Muya Tibetan,etc. These Tibetans still have some differences in their culture and custom.
These nationalities live with Tibetans together, creating small communities, which help to preserve their own culture on the one hand and on the other hand, these cultures have been influenced by Tibetan culture to some extent. The cuisine of four nationalities: Han, Zang, Yi, and Hui, coexist with each others. Even the Tibetan cuisine combined four cultural cycles: the pasturage region in west Khampa, and agricultural regions in the north, south, and east of Khampa. Dressing culture is more flowery in Tibetan region. The dressing of agricultural zones in the north and south of Khampa, dressing of pasturage zone, Muya and Jiarong dressing are distinctive. Dege Sutra-Printing Academy, known as a Treasury of the Tibetan Culture, Kangding Qingge, a folk love song, an universal song, and the cultural foundation, rooted in Gesser Epic, which enjoys the honor of the Oriental Eliot, are the most brilliant features, and the most profound and appropriate footnote of Khampa culture. Boorish, unrestrained and ornate natural sceneries interweave with prosperous Kangding culture, forming a colorful humanistic spot.
Bimo is transliterated from Yiwen (the Yi language). “Bi” means patter, and “mo” is the honorific title for educated elders. Bimo is not only the person who’s in charge of amanuensis, presiding ritual affairs, but is also a teacher, counselor, physician and judge as well. Meanwhile, they create character, compile and stow Sutra of Yiwen. They are intellectuals who understand history, astrology and geology of Yi nationality, and they are successors of the Yi culture. Bimo culture is an important component of Yi culture. It’s related to a vast sphere, such as politics, economy, culture, education, philosophy, physic, morality, science, custom, rite, etc, and carries high academic value. Bimo culture is a valuable material for researches, such as history of nationalities and regions, cultural origin of Yi nationality and so on. In addition, it’s an important part of Chinese cultural heritage.
Culture of Dongnu Regime (A nation led by females)
Dongnu kingdom was a tribe group and a regional regime in 6.7 A.D., which was an important civilization in Changdu area and the whole Tibetan history. It’s proved by experts that Dongnu kingdom bordered Maozhou (today’s Maowen in Sichuan) in the east, and Yazhou (today’s Ya’an) in southeast, and it had a very vast area, including the west to current Aba Maowen in Sichuan and the north to Batang, Litang of Ganzhi zhou, as well as the whole Changdu area. One of the prominent features of Dongnu kingdom is the female-centered and woman-worshipping social system. The kingship succession adopted the mode combined with lifetime system and family monopoly system. Man are untitled to inherit the kingship. Although Dongnu kingdom collapsed, today, there are still some remaining cultural elements of Dongnu kingdom in Sichuan and Tibet. Today, Jiarong Tibetan in Sichuan Tibetan region and Mosuo people, on the bank of Lugu lake, etc, still adhere to the ancient worship to Muerduo Goddess mountain and still believe in a female-centered and woman-worshipping system.