|Local Quyi |
Sichuan Quyi was developed from the Sichuan folk arts of singing and story telling, with various performance forms and thick sense of locality; as it has simple requirements on stage and prop, it is welcomed by the people. He Lvting, a famous musician, after watching the show of Sichuan Quyi on the first concert of “Autumn of Chengdu” in 1981, highly valued it, and thought it is a precious resource of “folk music arts”. Till now, more than 10 forms of Quyi with local Sichuan characteristics have been discovered, which is really attractive.
Sichuan Cymbalo was called “Yugu Cymbalo” or “Dagu Cymbalo” at earlier stage, which is a name acquired due to the use of cymbalo as the accompaniment instrument, and is reputed of “delivering emotion instantly”. It has become popular in Chengdu, Chongqing, Luzhou and Zigong since Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. The cymbalo in initial stage was used by blind artists to describe figures and stories and express the change of emotions including pleasure, anger, misery and happiness through sincere singing and cymbalo music. Now, it combines the singing, craftsmanship and operation, to combine the story with the arts show describing figures, which enhances the appealingness of arts and makes it endurable. The old artists of Cymbalo including Li Decai, Liu Songbai, Hong Fengci and Zhang Dazhang all have made their own contribution to the development of cymbalo arts. The cymbalo arts of Li Decai is featured with “emotion from deep heart and showing by music”, and the “Haha accent” created by him is clear, floating, sweet and moving, which is reputed as “De Branch”.
Sichuan Cymbalo absorbs the advantages of Sichuan Opera and unvoiced sound, and through singing and story telling, integrates story, emotion and drama, and shows the stories in clear plot. The show of cymbalo usually includes 5 persons playing the role of Sheng, Dan, Jing, Mo and Chou, operating cymbalo, clappers, small fiddle, Wanwan sackbut and trichord, who will tell story and sing with accompaniment, with a lot of dramas, such as Jiangjunling, Naotai, Huarongdao, Qingfengting, Huozhuosanlang and Qiujiang. After liberation, some new works have been created, such as Red Flag over Jialing River, Kaokong, Langjidanxin, Tiechuang Xunzi, Farewell to Primer Zhou and Mrs. Wanhua protecting Chengdu.
Sichuan surd was developed from tune in Ming and Qing Dynasties and Sichuan folk songs. It is a type of arts combined with story telling and singing, focuses on “clear sound and sweet accent”, and requires to sing like talking and to talk like singing. As it is often accompanied by moon guitar, it is also called “Sing moon guitar”, “Sing Pipa” and “Sing tune”. Li Yueqiu, an old artist, won many awards in domestic and overseas arts shows. Xiao Shunyu, a promising young man of Sichuan Quyi Theatre, is good at combining real sound and falsetto, softness and firmness, implication and ebullience, and vigor and feeling, which makes his show natural and moving. There are a number of traditional items including Zhaojun Chusai, Nigu Xiasha, Duanqiao, Daiyu Fengao and Fang Fengzheng,
Sichuan Storytelling is renowned together with Beijing Storytelling, Hubei Storytelling, Shanghai Storytelling and Yangzhou Storytelling. According to the record of Chengdu Almanac, Sichuan storytelling at initial stage was like this: At a stage covered by a cot on market, with a square Chinese lantern marked with “Storytelling” hanging on the stage, the storyteller held a fan on hand, stood on the stage, and telling the fighting and shouting on battle field, which provides a personal experience. Sichuan Storytelling includes the forms of “Qing Cot” (moderate stage) and “Lei Cot” (fighter stage). “Qing Cot” is for literary man to tell story, without fixed procedure but focusing on eloquence, concentrating on the fundamental skills of “sound, literary, debating and knowledge”, and emphasizing “modulation tone and clear sound”, “prompt reaction”, “vividness” and “extensive knowledge”. Xu, a famous storyteller, with its excellent arts featured with “strong hand, moving eye, good figure and regulated stepping”, won the praise of audiences.
Sichuan Humorous Drama
Sichuan Humorous Drama is an art adopting laughter as a method, using humorous Sichuan accent and placing serious theme in relaxing and vivid jokes. Its main feature is that one actor plays one role and shows a story, which is similar to monotalk, monodrama and single double reed. It was founded since Wang Yongshuo (a Quyi player) played “Selling plaster” in 1939, and showed in Beijing in 1980. It is reputed in Quyi circle as “a new flower of Quyi”.
Sichuan Jinqian Clapper
Sichuan Jinqian Clapper is played by an actor holding and striking three pieces of bamboo clappers and telling stories and singing, and show emotional feelings through 4 sounds including “Hong Luan’ao”, “Fugui Hua”, “Jiangtou Gui” and “Mantang Hong”, which is vivid and reflective. The drama “Wu Song” played by Zou Zhongxin, a famous actor, described the hero in folk tale vividly, so that he was called “the living Wu Song”.
Sichuan Bamboo Sackbut
Sichuan Bamboo Sackbut was originally used by Taoists and recluse for telling truths and persuading people to do goods, through performing bamboo drum and reel plates. In 1940s, Jia Shushan absorbed the sounds of Sichuan Opera and cymbalo, which enriches the content of performance and creates the arts of Jia favored by the audiences.
Sichuan Xiangshu is also called “next-door drama”, with the props including a square net in around 1.7m height and around 0.67m width, fan, copper bell and lotus ring, with actor in the net, simulating various sounds through oral stunts and props vividly.
Sichuan Heye (Lotus Leaf)
Sichuan is a type of Quyi combining singing and storytelling, with the actor holding Tan plate (Tianqiao) and copper cross (Sujiao) in acting. As Heye is a type of copper instrument and shaped in lotus leaf, it gets the name. According to data, in playing Heye, “accompanied by Tan plate and bamboo pieces, the sound is pleasant to ear”.
Sichuan Panzi combines the surd and the melody of folk song, with eloquent and clear tune. The actor holds bamboo piece and ceramic plate (disc), makes the thyme, dances and sings, which is vivid and relaxing.
Sichuan Chedeng derives from Cailiandeng, Xuanmeideng and Chechedeng in folk arts. It is featured with simple tune and folk flavor. The actor holds 4 pieces of bamboo plates, dances and sing, accompanied by instrument, gongs and drum, and also chorus.